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Marxism and Literature, Raymond Williams
      Williams, Raymond, Marxism and Literature, Oxford, Oxford Unviversity Press, 1977
           #3627   Created 04/24/2014   Updated 04/24/2014

4. page 55

The difficulty then is that we have to distinguish three common versions of the concept (ideology), which are all common in Marxist writing. There are, broadly: (i) a system of beliefs characteristic of a particular class or group; (ii) a system of illusory beliefs--false ideas or false consciousness--which can be contrasted with true or scientific knowledge; (iii) the general process of the production of meanings and ideas. 55

...for the ideological process---the production of meanings and ideas---is then seen as general and universal and ideology is either this process itself or the area of its study. 55

The sense of externality is decisive in the development of the concept of 'determinism', in which some power (God or Nature or History) controls or decides the outcome of an action or process, beyond or irrespective of the wills or desires of its agents. .... what had been (abstractly) the 'determinant Counsell and foreknowledge of God' (Tyndale) became, especially in the physical sciences, 'determinate conditions' or 'determined laws', based on precice knowledge of the inherent characteristic of a process and its components. 84

...it seems clear that the Marxist version of determinism, at least in its first stage, corresponds to this 'scientific' idea. 84

"In the social production which many carry on they enter into definite relations that are indispensable and independent of their will...a definite stage of development...(SW, i. 362)

"The mass of productive forces accessible to men determines the conditions of society...." (GI, 18)



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