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January 2019    Dennis R. DuBe'     671/3790

theories of mass comm 48
           #3790   Created 12/21/2015   Updated 11/21/2020

These notes cribbed from various online sources unattributed. fOR REF ONLY.


-- Attraction-Selection-Attrition Framework (not relevant)

-- Attribution Theory. Not relevant.

-- Berlo's S-M-C-R Model. SMCR (SOURCE, MESSAGE, CHANNEL, and RECEIVER) model focuses on the individual characteristics of communication and stresses the role of the relationship between the source and the receiver as an important variable in the communication process. The more highly developed the communication skills of the source and the receiver, the more effectively the message will be encoded and decoded. Berlo's model represents a communication process that occurs as a SOURCE drafts messages based on one's communication skills, attitudes, knowledge, and social and cultural system. These MESSAGES are transmitted along CHANNELS, which can include sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. A RECEIVER interprets messages based on the individual's communication skills, attitudes, knowledge, and social and cultural system. The limitations of the model are its lack of feedback. CONTENT and

-- Classical Rhetoric. Rhetorics typically provide heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals, logos, pathos, and ethos. Not relevant.

-- Cognitive Dissonance theory. Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors. This produces a feeling of discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance etc. -- Computer Mediated Communication. Not relevant.

--. Consistency Theories -- Festinger formulated the consistency theories that talked about people"s need for consistency in their beliefs and judgments. In order to reduce dissonance created by inconsistencies in belief, judgments and action, people expose themselves to information that is consistent with their ideas and actions, and they shut out other communications. dd The Fox News Effect.

-- Contextual Design. A user-centered design process developed by Hugh Beyer and Karen Holtzblatt. It incorporates ethnographic methods for gathering data relevant to the product via field studies, rationalizing workflows, and designing human-computer interfaces. In practice, this means that researchers aggregate data from customers in the field where people are living and applying these findings into a final product. Not directly relevant.

-- Coordinated Management of Meaning. (CMM) provides understanding of how individuals create, coordinate and manage meanings in their process of communication. Generally, it refers to "how individuals establish rules for creating and interpreting meaning and how those rules are enmeshed in a conversation where meaning is constantly being coordinated".[1] Not relevant.

-- Cultivation Theory -- George Gerbner tried to determine the influence of television on viewers" ideas of the environment they lived in. He found that dominance of TV created a common view of the world and that it homogenized different cultures. TV portrayed the society as a bad place to live in leading to people becoming distrustful of the world. Over time, particular symbols, images, messages, meanings become dominant and are absorbed as the truth. Cultural stereotypes, ways of assessing value and hierarchies are established. --. Democratization/Democratic Participant Media Theory -- This theory vehemently opposes the commercialization of modern media and its top-down non-participant character. The need for access and right to communicate is stressed.

-- Dependency Theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former. It is a central contention of dependency theory that poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched by the way poor states are integrated into the "world system". The theory arose as a reaction to modernization theory, an earlier theory of development which held that all societies progress through similar stages of development.

-- Development Communication Theory -- There can be no development without communication. Media subordinated themselves to political, economic, social and cultural needs. dd The comports with media being essential to economic development.

-- Diffusion of Innovations Theory -- Pioneered in 1943 by Bryce Ryan and Neil Gross of Iowa State University this theory traces the process by which a new idea or practice is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system. The model describes the factors that influence people's thoughts and actions and the process of adopting a new technology or idea.

-- Domestication Theory is an approach in science and technology studies and media studies that describes the processes by which innovations, especially new technology is 'tamed' or appropriated by its users. First, technologies are integrated into everyday life and adapted to daily practices. Secondly, the user and its environment change and adapt accordingly. Thirdly, these adaptations feedback into innovation processes in industry, shaping the next generation of technologies and services.

-- The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion [1] is a dual process theory describing the change of attitudes form. The ELM was developed by Richard E. Petty and John Cacioppo in the mid-1970s.[2] The model aims to explain different ways of processing stimuli, why they are used, and their outcomes on attitude change. The ELM proposes two major routes to persuasion: the central route and the peripheral route. Under the central route, persuasion will likely result from a person's careful and thoughtful consideration of the true merits of the information presented in support of an advocacy.[3] The central route involves a high level of message elaboration in which a great amount of cognition about the arguments are generated by the individual receiving the message. The results of attitude change will be relatively enduring, resistant, and predictive of behavior.[4] On the other hand, under the peripheral route, persuasion results from a person's association with positive or negative cues in the stimulus or making a simple inference about the merits of the advocated position. The cues received by the individual under the peripheral route are generally unrelated to the logical quality of the stimulus. These cues will involve factors such as the credibility or attractiveness of the sources of the message, or the production quality of the message.[5] The likelihood of elaboration will be determined by an individual's motivation and ability to evaluate the argument being presented. -- Expectancy Value Theory. John William Atkinson developed The Expectancy-Value Theory in the 1950s and 1960s in an effort to understand the achievement motivation of individuals.[1] In the 1980s, Jacquelynne Eccles expanded this research into the field of education.[1] According to Expectancy-Value Theory, students’ achievement and achievement related choices are most proximally determined by two factors,[1] expectancies for success, and subjective task values. Expectancies refer to how confident an individual is in his or her ability to succeed in a task whereas task values refer to how important, useful, or enjoyable the individual perceives the task.

-- Framing. In the social sciences, framing comprises a set of concepts and theoretical perspectives on how individuals, groups, and societies, organize perceive, and communicate about reality. Framing involves social construction of a social phenomenon - by mass media sources, political or social movements, political leaders, or other actors and organizations. It is an inevitable process of selective influence over the individual's perception of the meanings attributed to words or phrases. It is generally considered[by whom?] in one of two ways: as frames in thought, consisting of the mental representations, interpretations, and simplifications of reality, and frames in communication, consisting of the communication of frames between different actors.[1]

-- Health Belief Model. The health belief model suggests that people's beliefs about health problems, perceived benefits of action and barriers to action, and self-efficacy explain engagement (or lack of engagement) in health-promoting behavior.[1][2] A stimulus, or cue to action, must also be present in order to trigger the health-promoting behavior. Not relevant.

-- Information Theories. Hmmm.

-- Gerbner's General Model. Gerbner's General Model also emphasizes the dynamic nature of human communication.

-- Language Expectancy Theory (See also Expectancy Violations Theory) The theory views language expediencies as enduring patterns of anticipated communication behavior which are grounded in a society's psychological and cultural norms. Such societal forces influence language and enable the identification of non-normative use; violations of linguistic, syntactic and semantic expectations will either facilitate or inhibit an audience's receptivity to persuasion.

-- Mental Models, Hmmm.

-- Minimalism. Not relevant.

-- Modernization Theory. Not relevant? Or is it based in action?

-- Multi-Step Flow Theory -- This was based on the idea that there are a number of relays in the communication flow from a source to a large audience.

-- Network Theory and Analysis

-- Priming

-- Protection Motivation Theory

-- Psycho-Linguistic Theory

-- Reduces Social Cues Approach

-- Semiotic Theories

-- Social Cognitive Theory

-- Social Support. Social support is the perception and actuality that one is cared for, has assistance available from other people, and that one is part of a supportive social network. These supportive resources can be emotional (e.g., nurturance), tangible (e.g., financial assistance), informational (e.g., advice), or companionship (e.g., sense of belonging) and intangible (e.g. personal advice). Social support can be measured as the perception that one has assistance available, the actual received assistance, or the degree to which a person is integrated in a social network. Not relevant.

-- Speech Act --??.

-- System Theory

-- Transactional Model of Stress and Coping. Not relevant.

-- Uncertainty Reduction Theory. In 1975, Charles Berger and Richard Calabrese created uncertainty reduction theory "to explain how communication is used to reduce uncertainties between strangers engaging in their first conversation together".[2] Previous researchers had approached interpersonal communication from empirical perspectives. Testable hypotheses had been derived from social psychological theories as well. However, the lack of focus on interpersonal communication process motivated Berger and Calabrese to form hypotheses that directly involve communication behavior.[1] The foundation of the uncertainty reduction theory stems from the information theory, originated by Claude E. Shannon and Warren Weaver.[2] Shannon and Weaver suggests, when people interact initially, uncertainties exist especially when the probability for alternatives in a situation is high and the probability of them occurring is equally high.[3] They assume uncertainty is reduced when the amount of alternatives is limited and/or the alternatives chosen tend to be repetitive. (I'm uncertain about this).

-- Uses and Gratifications Approach -- This theory propounded by Katz in 1970, is concerned with how people use media for gratification of their needs. An outcome of Abraham Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs, it propounds the fact that people choose what they want to see or read and the different media compete to satisfy each individual"s needs. In the hierarchy of needs, there are five levels in the form of a pyramid with the basic needs such as food and clothing at the base and the higher order needs climbing up the pyramid. The fulfillment of each lower level need leads to the individual looking to satisfy the next level of need and so on till he reaches the superior-most need of self-actualization. (I'm uncertain about this).


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