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Synthesis 27. < !------- test block: issue=Synthesis id=731 sec1name=Overview imagetmplt=3893 ---------->
Synthesis
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January 2019    Dennis R. DuBe'     731/3567


"Journalism is..." Notes from Nerone (comments from dube)
     
           #3567   Created 03/04/2014   Updated 02/06/2018

Note: These are my notes from reading John Nerone"s "Journalism", pp. 196-208 in Simonson, et. Al, eds., Handbook of Communication History, (routledge, 2012).

Journalism is a few things:

--the news

--the discipline of producing the news

(dd adds:)

--a part of the broader academic and professional sphere of Journalism

--a part of a much broader academic and cultural sphere of literature, philosophy, and art.

(end dd adds)

Attributes (social media attributes by dd)

--periodicity (always on)

--distribution in public spaces (hybrid always-on public/private space)

--self-defined, self-supervised profession (undefined except by software, evolved practice)

--originally in early u.s. a link between Government and "consent of the governed" via postal distribution. A sore spot with Republicans. (originally a way of hooking up with friends)

--commercialization and industrialization of newspapers added 'economic advantage' to journalism's focus on 'public good' (social media ignores 'public good' as a standard, but achieves a similar effect through crowdsourcing)

--journalism added "professionalism" as counter to commercial pressure (social media ignores both professionalism and somewhat opposes commercial pressure).

--"professionalism" included emergence of journalism schools to teach 'professional practice' (social media spawns informal sharing of skills)

--individual 'bylines' added personal responsibility to individual journalist (anonymous commenting destroys personal responsibility)

--John Nerone: "Journalism as a discipline of verification was invented as a kind of negotiated settlement to a complicated three-way struggle between the public, publishers, and news-workers." (social media is a discipline of self-description,

--Journalism lacks: an underlying science, financial independence, autonomy.

--Journalism attributes:

--body of knowledge necessarily shared with public;

--practical, non-theoretical basis;

--a practice of craft skills; necessary broad educational grounding in humanities, social sciences;

--specialized field knowledge (i.e. political, scientific, technical);

--no external licensing or approval;

--employment dependent on organizations centered in external economics (advertising, distribution, sponsorship, partisan affiliations, etc.

--dependence on subsidized information sources;

--self-defined "ethics" and "objectivity";

Journalists individually tasked with policing own self-defined values.

Journalists tasked with middle position of responsibility for informing public, and also representing (speaking as) public (gate-keeping, agenda-setting, and issue-framing).

Journalists dilemmas:

--lack of autonomy results in serving interests of corporations;

--inability to frame means choosing from predefined alternatives;

--inability to gate-keep leads to restating prepacked information;

--inability to set agendas means passive endorsement of existing power structures;

--functioning with commercial context serves specific governmental and business interests;



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